Accounting policies

Accounting policies

The consolidated and separate financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and its interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).


Basis of preparation

The consolidated and separate financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis except that derivative financial instruments, financial instruments held-for-trading and financial instruments classified as available-for-sale are stated at their fair value.

Non-current assets and disposal groups held-for-sale are stated at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. Although estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances (the results of which form the basis of making the judgements about carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources), the actual outcome may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised, if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Judgements made in the application of IFRS that have had an effect on the financial statements and estimates with a risk of adjustment in the next year are discussed in note 39.

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements. These financial statements are presented in South African rand, which is the Group’scial information has been rounded to the nearest thousand unless stated otherwise.

Two interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee are effective for the current period. These are: IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes and IFRIC 14 IAS 19 The limit on a defined benefit asset, minus funding requirements and their interaction. The adoption of these interpretations has not led to any changes in the policies.


Basis of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Company. Control exists when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that presently are exercisable or convertible are taken into account. Operating results of businesses acquired or disposed of during the year are included from or to the effective date of acquisition or disposal, being the date that control commences until the date control ceases. The assets and liabilities of companies acquired are assessed and included in the balance sheet at their estimated fair values to the Group at acquisition date.

Inter-group transactions and balances are eliminated on consolidation. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with jointly controlled entities and equity accounted associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’ssed losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

The Company carries its investments in subsidiaries at cost less accumulated impairment losses.



Revenue comprises amounts invoiced to customers for goods and services and includes finance charges; insurance premiums; gross billings and commissions related to clearing and forwarding transactions, and excludes value added tax. Revenue is net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. Total revenue also includes dividends received and finance income.